"Nothing says more about you than your watch ..."
Probably everyone will agree with this statement. However, you can make a small correction: "... than your Swiss watch." For many centuries the world championship in the watch industry is firmly holding the original Swiss watches. If you mention good wrist mechanism, in the mind emerged immediately of Swiss watches with their variety of models provided by various Swiss companies. Impeccable quality, highest precision, durability, unique design, the support of centuries-old tradition of Swiss watch making, luxury and sense of style - these qualities of the original Swiss watches can be extended to infinity. For amateurs, they are simple gauges of time, but for the true connoisseur of the Swiss watch - it's the epitome of luxury and wealth. Original watches demonstrate a high status of their owner. For example, the famous Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger wears on hand luxury watches Audemars Piguet. Gold watches of Swiss brand Breguet were favored by Napoleon Bonaparte and Winston Churchill. Vladimir Putin prefers very expensive and exclusive attribute of the famous Swiss brand Patek Philippe (in 1999 Guinness Book of Records the Patek Philippe watch was listed for sale on with worth of $ 11 million). This is caused because the watch is an attribute of self-expression, and the most important person, the more significant it on the wrist. These original "ego attributes" will give a unique look even less glamorous costume. Original Swiss watches combine years of experience and tradition with modern methods of manufacture. Their quality is protected in law through domestic laws and agreements between countries. However, we consider everything in order: how did such a tiny, but at the same time, important countries like Switzerland, why high horology has arisen here and that it is a general.
Through the centuries and epochs ...
So, move on to ten thousand years ago in a tiny town, where today is a land under the sonorous name of Switzerland. The first evidence of human activity in this place relate to the Paleolithic era. In the Swiss town of Neuchatel found objects, dating from 2000 - 4000 BC and traces of agricultural activity of the Neolithic, which is nearly 3,000 years BC. Already in the Bronze and earlier period Iron, when trade was born, first mountain trails were laid in Switzerland. The beginning of our era is marked by the arrival on the territory of modern Switzerland tribe of Celtic origin - Helvetians. In 107 BC pass through of Saint – Gothard the territory was invaded by the Romans. In 58 BC between the Romans and the Helvetian was battle, after that the Romans managed to subdue all the Helvetian land (west of the present Switzerland, hence the second name of the country - Helvetia). However, in the 5th century Germanic tribe Aleman settled here, which gradually drove the Romans from the territory. In the annals of Swiss also mentions that in 1032 the Swiss lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire, the central authority which was quite weak. However, the situation changed dramatically when in the arena of history appeared the Habsburg dynasty, which has become one of the most influential in Central Europe. Soon the first Rudolf became the head of broadened its power dynasty, who managed to pacify the discontented lords. After the death of Rudolf in 1291, the local feudal lords got an opportunity to gain independence. In the same year for the struggle against foreign enemies (especially with the Habsburgs), three "forest" cantons - Uri, Shvitts (hence, Switzerland) and Nidwalden - signed a "eternal union." From that the official history of Switzerland starts. The famous legend of William Tell perfectly reflects the struggle of "eternal union" and the Habsburgs. Switzerland soon joined in a taste of their success and independence of their territory and in 1499 during the Swabian War, withdrew from the influence of the Holy Roman Empire, which Emperor was the first Maximilian. In 1515 Switzerland came out against the combined forces of France and Venice, which finally died down its ardor. Realizing at last that the enemy is far superior forces, Switzerland stopped its expansion, and declared its neutrality.
According to the history of Switzerland, the Reformation of 16th century was the impetus of European coup. The teachings of Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin's Protestantism found its wide distribution in various Swiss cities, but the center of the country remained committed to Catholicism. When the Thirty Years War thundered across Europe, Switzerland has remained in the shadows. After the war ending in 1648 the independence of Switzerland and the Holy Roman Empire was officially recognized by the Treaty of Westphalia. However, this did not prevent Napoleon to enter the territory of Switzerland in the spring of 1798, after which it became a republic Helvetia. However, the country didn’t like the new centralized power the French, and immediately after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo Swiss rejected an imposed regime. In March 1815, Switzerland got a guarantee of independence and permanent neutrality by the Congress of Vienna. In 1848, Switzerland adopted a new constitution, many of which act to this day. Capital of the newly formed state became the city Bern. The Federal Council of seven members was established as a standing body of the executive board, who are elected by the legislature of two chambers - the National Council of the cantons. In the responsibility of the federal government was to issue money, control of customs rules and the definition of foreign policy. Now Switzerland does forging with establishing economic and social issues. Swiss production was based on highly skilled labor. Throughout Switzerland were laid new track, which allowed reaching the most inaccessible regions of the country, in particular the Alps and facilitating rapid development of tourism. In 1863 in the Swiss city of Geneva was established the international Red Cross. There was a free and compulsory education. It was then that Switzerland maintains its neutrality. The only intervention in the country's military action was the organization of units of the Red Cross during the First World War. But it is also known about the actions of Switzerland during the Second World War, which is quite shaken the country's reputation on the world stage at the end of XX century. This was due to the fact that the confiscated gold from Jews and other valuables, Nazi Germany had deposited it in Switzerland. In the middle 90th of XX century, interested individuals and groups have stated that after the war, Switzerland had not fulfilled their obligations to return the gold, money and valuables, and accused the Swiss banks is that they prevent access to the heirs of the "frozen" accounts of deceased depositors. The proceedings lasted three years. In August 1998, Switzerland Banking Group has agreed to pay 1.25 billion dollars in compensation to the victims of genocide and their heirs. But Switzerland's reputation in the international arena has been shaken. However, despite these incidents, no one today would doubt the reliability of Swiss banks, which contain almost all the money in the world.
The welfare of Switzerland is primarily due to the fact that while Europe recovered from the devastation of World War II, Switzerland, took up the improvement of commercial, financial and economic systems. Soon after the Swiss city Zurich has received the status of international banking city, and Geneva became the center of the headquarters of the largest apartments of various international organizations (WHO). Following its neutrality, Switzerland has not entered any UN, granted observer status, and not in NATO. However, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. In 1992 the Swiss government has applied for membership in the EU. However, for the Switzerland's accession to the EU it was necessary to join the European Economic Area, to which in 1992 in a referendum citizens voted against. So, the application is still in limbo.
Swiss watch making - punctuality and pedantry of John Calvin
Today at the mention of Switzerland, in addition to cheese and chocolate in the minds emerge the association with watches, whether it's men's wrist watch or women’s wrist watch. For five centuries the watch industry has been one of the main branches of stable Swiss economy. Even in the 14th century, Switzerland had no idea what it would become steadfast leader in the watch industry. At that time, this status was claimed by such watch countries, like Italy, Germany, France and even Britain. But in the end it went to Switzerland. Now everything is in order, but rather with Calvin, who was the founder of not only the watch industry in Switzerland, as well as the main "engine of progress" of this country, making it one of the most prosperous. It happened as follows.
In 1956, for the first time Frenchman Jean Calvin’s foot entered the Swiss land, who arrived here after discord with the Catholic Church. At that time Geneva was not part of the Confederacy, having concluded a treaty of mutual defense with the cantons Bern and Zurich. Upon arrival, Calvin decided to radically transform Geneva. However, just three years later his plans have failed in a result of stubborn pride of citizens and impatience a reformer himself. Calvin was simply banished from the city. But he was destined to come back: in 1541 at the urging of his followers in Geneva (which has accumulated enough), he came to Geneva again, becoming more careful in the construction of church life. He was able to instill his Protestant beliefs in Government: hard work is the only value, and wealth and well-being is God's reward. The basis of this Calvinist philosophy was a good push for the development of capitalism. A reformer paid a great attention on the development of science and art. About the fateful arrival of Calvin in Geneva there is one story. In July 1536 a 27-year-old Calvin stayed in Geneva, where he decided to stay only one night on his way to Strasbourg. Guillaume Farel, who recently launched the Geneva church reform, immediately knew about his arrival. Farel immediately came to Calvin and asked him to stay in the city and help in the dissemination of Protestant ideas. Later Calvin wrote that he felt like "God stretched out his hand from heaven, put it on his shoulder and pinned to the place that he was going to leave".
Punctuality and pedantry of Calvin served as the emergence of watch making in Geneva. Among the Huguenots who sought refuge in Geneva by John Calvin, were a large number of watchmakers. The watch production firmly established on Swiss land thanks their knowledge and skills. Reforms of John Calvin forbade wearing jewelry, and this was the fact that the masters and jewelers changed their specificity, electing a new and unknown - an independent horology. Soon it began its widespread in the north – east of the country. Already in 1601 about 500 watchmakers joined the Guild of Geneva's watch, which has become the world's first professional association of artists of watch making. "The city was filled with a watchmakers" - written by historians. That’s why some of them left Geneva and moved to more peaceful cities. In Geneva development of watch making was continuing. However the Geneva watch factory, which was the first in Switzerland, was opened only in 1804.
In the canton Neuchâtel in the XVII century many families were engaged in watch manufacturing their houses, and in the Vallée de Joux the first watch workshop was opened in 1740. In the second half of XIX century watch production was moved to the cantons Bern and Solothurn, and later in Basel and Schaffhausen. In 1790 more than 60,000 pieces of watches were produced for export only in the vicinity of Geneva. With the growth of watchmakers a lot of factories for the production of particular machinery and equipment for the watch industry were opened. Some factories strongly occupied a niche on the market of specialized products. For example, Vallorbe is a global manufacturer of files for precision instrumentation works. Moutier is a homeland of precision turning industry. It is famous for its turning lathes of cam-type, which were introduced in the early of 80th in XIX century, exerted a powerful revolutionary effect on the further development of the watch making industry. 1770 was marked by the creation of a "perpetual watch" in Le Locle by Abraham - Louis Perrelet which plants in pocket of the owner. They were the prototype of the modern self-winding timepieces. After more than 50 years in the Valle de Joux the pendulum watch with a pendant winding was invented by the founder of the legendary company Patek Philippe - Adrian Philipe. With a number of discoveries and inventions Swiss watches were equipped with additional functions such as chronograph, perpetual calendar, and countdown. Already on the verge of 20th century with the introduction of new technologies watch making began mass industry: Pierre-Frederic Ingold (1787-1878) invented a machine for accurate and fast cutting boards and gear, and the George-August Lesho (1800-1884) introduced the principle of interchangeability of spare parts as the basis of standardization.
Throughout the 19th - century Swiss watch industry was steadily growing, gaining breadth and strength. Soon it was able to overtake the UK in volume of output watches, sales and be unwavering global leader in watch making. However, in the second half of 19th century in the arena there were serious competitors, which were newly established watch companies of America. They have been producing components of the watches, which differed at the accuracy and interchangeability. This left the most negative impacts on the Swiss watch industry: exports of Swiss watches in the New World fell by 75% during 10 years. A serious crisis was brewing. But the difficulties did not prevent the watch manufacturers to create true works of jewelry art. For example, for producing competitive products have been invented and installed additional features such as calendar, stopwatch. In 1920 first waterproof watch Swiss Rolex was produced and in 1926 in Grenchen was invented the first wristwatch with automatic winding. All this will serve to increase the volume of produced watches, but it was not enough.
In the 70s of the 20th century electronic revolution began, which wasn’t absolutely affected Switzerland. As strange as it sounds, but in 1967 at the Center of Digital Watch Industry in Neuchâtel were invented first quartz watch. However, the Swiss watch companies remained committed to traditional mechanical watches, disregarding this technical innovation. At right time this technical innovation was used by Japanese and American watch companies. For the Swiss watch industry it was a serious mistake, which almost became fatal: in the mid 70s Swiss watch industry suffered heavy losses and lost its status as a world leader of watch making. However, out of the crisis was found in the most amazing and unexpected ways. In 1983 on the market appeared original Swiss watch Swatch, which is analog of traditional Swiss quartz watches, and has since sold of millions pieces. Surely, wrist watches Swatch have become a lifeline for the entire Swiss watch industry, again making it the world’s leader - the main producer of watches. Switzerland managed to overcome the 30 - year-old crises thanks to it timely resourcefulness. Constant innovative design ideas and implementation of new manufacturing techniques have allowed the original Swiss wrist watches to keep the leading position for a long time and to this day. The range of original Swiss watches represented a wide variety depending on the price, used materials and methods of manufacture. Watch industry is one of the major export branches of the economy: 95% of all production of the watch industry is export. Throughout the world, you can find Swiss watches: from cheap quartz watches to mechanical masterpieces made of gold and decorated with precious stones, whose price reaches several million francs.
Time does not stand and that is what inspires the Swiss masters for new inventions that will continue to keep a centuries-old tradition and experience true Swiss watch making.
Watchmaker: time for changes
Schools of watchmakers: over the centuries accumulated experience and scientific - technical innovations
Today, the Swiss watch industry is at the highest level that it would be impossible to achieve without schools of professional level. The credit of professional watchmakers belongs to them - the real experts of their business. All this is possible today thanks to the accumulated experience of watch making over the centuries and the continuous introduction of scientific - technical innovation.
The first schools of watchmakers were opened at the insistence of watch manufacturers in the middle of the XIX century. This stage of watch making development was marked by a clear division of labor, in result there was the need to accumulate and systematize the gained knowledge. In 1824 the doors of the first school in Geneva were opened, in the next ten years two others were opened in Neuchatel and Berne. For learning a complicated profession of watchmaker it was need three years. The program included the practice and theory. However, only a few students received their full education, as a result the schools were gradually deprived of financial support from the watch manufacturers. The former technical director of watch manufacture Longines Jacques David introduced a new American model of education in the system of training watchmakers. This idea occurred to him on his return from the World's Fair, held in Philadelphia. The new model of education was in combining theory and practice to achieve that was necessary to install the machines in training workshops, as well as enter a new discipline into a substantive program - mechanics. However, adherents of the traditional method of teaching didn’t support the proposal of David Jacques. However, despite such a "cold shoulder", he implemented a new model at his watch manufacture. The project was culminated in a huge success and soon in Switzerland all the watchmakers’ schools were trained on the "Saint - Imer model."
Today, training of watchmaker is based on a vocational school combined with work experience in the enterprise. There are three ways to get the profession:
1. Accredited schools of watch making, located in Biel, Geneva, Le Locle, Le Sentier, Porrentruy and Grenchen. After graduation federal diplomas are issued, recognized throughout Switzerland.
2.Training centers of some watch enterprises.
3. Education within the framework of training and retraining, and educational courses on the basis of the Swiss Watch Industry Association of Entrepreneurs.
In addition to regular schools, learning the complicated profession of watchmaker, there are various organizations such as the Academy, federations, associations and institutions.
Today the only organization of independent watchmakers is AHCI. Sven Andersen and Vincent Calabrese founded the Academy in 1985 in the Swiss city Bern. The main purpose of the Academy was the revival of traditional watch making, which needs constant support and cultivation. The basis for the establishment of the Academy was founded by Vincent Calabrese. With the invention of model “Golden Bridge” for the watch company Corum, he left the right to use this model and invented caliber for himself. However, he soon realized the severity of promoting his products alone, but also that it is not the only watchmaker with a similar problem. As a result with his friend Sven, they founded the Academy. They organized the first presentation of the Academy to the general public in the watch museum of Swiss town Le - Locle, followed by a joint exhibition BaselWorld. At that time, members of the Academy were men like George Daniels, Bernard Lederer and Frank Muller.
Despite its name, the Academy is more likely workshop in the best medieval tradition. To become a member of this organization is quite difficult. During the entire period of its existence, only 36 candidates were awarded to become a member, which takes years. AHCI is an international organization whose members can become watchmakers from around the world, and even from the East. For example, a member of the Academy Kyu Tai Yu from Hong Kong - it is from where go a lot of fakes of famous Swiss brands. For membership it is not necessarily the availability of special watch education, but most members have it. Among the list of members there is also a self-taught, for example, Aniceto Jiménez Pita, a master from Barcelona. He has special education. He studied the watch mechanics during the restoration and collecting of watches and only after 19 years was engaged in the creation of his own works.
Today, the main purpose of the Academy is to determine the presence of watchmakers and factories, as well as promoting their education and development. With the help of the Academy its talented craftsmen take part in various exhibitions to familiarize the general public with their luxurious creations. Today for the membership of the Academy the candidate must have a few points: candidate must have the abilities and skills of watch making, he must develop his own mechanism, and two sureties must support him. The process takes at least two years and at the end the general assembly of AHCI should unanimously adopt candidate as a member of the academy. The leading authority body of the Academy is the complete collection of members, which is organized twice a year: in spring, in conjunction with the exhibition BaselWorld and in fall, hosted by a member of the Academy.
Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry – FH
Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry – FH – is the leading trade association in the Swiss watch industry. The headquarters of FH is located in Bien. FH is a private, professional and non-profit association, which includes 500 members, representing over 90% of all Swiss watch manufacturers (as a finished product, as well as watch movements and components). Today, FH has the following aims: •contribute to the development of the Swiss Watch Industry
• establish a permanent liaison between the members of the federation for the promotion of common interests
• represent the Swiss watch industry in negotiations with international standardization bodies and economic organizations
• protect the interests of its members in the drafting of national and foreign laws, as well as during international negotiations to protect the interests of its members through litigation.
Institute of watch and jewelry art
In 2011 the list of Swiss special training institutions of watch and jewelry art has been added by another - Institute of watch and jewelry art Swiss Retail Management Institute for Watches & Jewellery (SRMI). The Institute is located near Geneva. In the institute one can get a professional education in management in the retail sale of watches and jewelry. If you want to go to college there is no need to pass exams, but must have experience in the watch business. The program is quite reduced: the entire course consists of 350 lessons. Price of the course is 18, 000 CHF. In the Institute is also available an express - course, the price of which is 6, 800 CHF. The education in this institute is organized by appropriate managers and representatives who work in retail and wholesale trade. For pre-booking seats is necessary a prepayment of 20% of the entire training cost. For students living near the institute there are various hotels, and is a residential building of the institute. The group consists of 15 persons or more, but it is possible also individual training.
Swiss quality: Swiss made and COSC
Today, the quality of Swiss watches is protected by law. The legendary inscription “Swiss made” (Made in Switzerland) on watches in addition to specifying the country - manufacturer, warrants to the purchaser of superior quality. Geneva seal - is a sign of perfect quality, which is very difficult to win. “Swiss made” inscription is one of the oldest and most prestigious distinctive mark. Using the seal “Swiss made” was established in 1886. Wristwatches that claim to receive this distinctive mark, must meet the requirements of 12 paragraphs, which are reduced to a description of how should be decorated platinum, bridges, screws, chatons, ratchet wheel, winding drum, and other visible to eyes nodes of inner mechanism. According to these requirements, the mechanism of Swiss watches should not have any not polished or decorated with guilloche Cotes de Genève. All the details of the circuit also should have no right angles all must have rounded ends or trapezoidal. Watch companies who want to get the seal “Swiss made”, in its stuff should have jewelers. Until recent times the seal “Swiss made” on watches only could have such names of Haute Horlogerie as Patek Philippe and Vacheron Constantin. Patek Philippe is the only watch manufacturer, all watches of which without exception have this seal of the highest quality. Now this list of names was added by such manufactories, as Cartier and Roger Dubuis. In addition to the aesthetic and technical advantages, the Geneva distinctive mark has a social-economic advantage. It is quite an effective force, prompting many watch companies build manufactory on territory of canton that provides residents of Geneva by jobs. Each year, in the market enters a total of 100 thousand watches with the seal “Swiss made”. Any watch can be consider as Swiss watch only in case of to be equipped with movement, made in Switzerland, has been assembled exclusively in Switzerland and has certificate one of the Swiss cantons. In its turn, the mechanism is considered to be Swiss if the assembly is in Switzerland with certificate of one of the cantons, as well as, if not less than 50% of watch components have been manufactured in Switzerland. The inscription “Swiss” or “Swiss made”, “Suisse, Fabrique en Suisse”, “Qualite Suisse” and others, containing the word “Swiss” must be present exclusively on Swiss watches and mechanisms. However, if the movement meets all the above points, but the watch final assembly has been made in another country, the Swiss label should be present only on the details of the mechanism. The inscription “Swiss movement” is allowed to be on watches only if all the letters of the word "mechanism" correspond to the nature, size and color of the letters of the word "Swiss". The inscription “Swiss” is allowed only on the dial of those watches, which fully comply with the definition of "Swiss watch". If the Swiss dial is for other watch manufacturers, so the inscription is applied to the opposite side. Bracelet is adorned with the inscription «Swiss made», if either it or watch has been manufactured in Switzerland. If Swiss bracelet set on a watch of foreign manufacturers, the strap is applied directly to the inscription «Swiss wristlet». Some watches are decorated with the inscription «Genève» on the front side of dial, directly under the brand name of watches. This inscription is also characterized to a watch of Swiss origin, if at least one of the operations of movement assembly has been made in the Canton of Geneva. Interestingly, in compliance with this requirement, 50% of the final cost of the product receives the Geneva canton. The mechanisms that meet the highest standards of Swiss quality have the inscription “Poincon de Geneve” or the “Geneva Seal” which is the most prestigious Swiss watch label. This marking is applied on the mechanism still during preparation, because the process of seal applying may damage the mechanism. All movements with the Geneva seal are numbered. Monitoring the performance of all the above requirements is controlled by the Bureau of the watch optional control in Geneva, which consists of 7 members, changing every 4 years. The activity of this bureau is funded by the State Budget. The Bureau carefully examines every tiny detail of the mechanism that ensures high quality and unsurpassed quality, high functionality and reliability of the whole mechanism.
The next important distinction of the watch is the certification mark of quality COSC (Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres). Today, under the chronometer can be understood any watch, but in watch making is quite different: here at first a chronometer can be considered a watch with high accuracy. A watch can obtain the status of the chronometer only if they have passed a special test, which is organized by the official Swiss Institute of timekeeping COSC. At the beginning in Switzerland chronometers were tested in the observatories of Neuchâtel (1866 - 1975) and Genève (1873 - 1967), each of which held its own testing standards. In observatories were tested watches, mostly not intended for sale: tested watches served to set up other watches. Some watch companies have tested quite a considerable amount of watches to obtain results for advertising purposes. However all tested watches were not available for sale. Soon a large number of mechanisms for general public were tested by official test agents, which at first were called «Bureaux officiels de controle de la marche des montres» (short for "B.O"). All these agencies were created from 1877 to 1956, each of which was operating independently of each other. Only on 23 June in 1973 has been established a centralized management for official testing agencies. Centralized management body was called «Controle Officiel Suisse des Chronometres» or COSC, the management of which is in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Agencies, which appeared in Bienne from 1877, in Geneva (1886) and Le - Locle (1901), exist to this day. Each watch is individually tested and passing the test receives a certificate of compliance «Bulletin du marche». The dials of these watches are usually marked with the inscription «Chronometer», «Certified Chronometer» or similar to them. Some watch companies provide paper version of certificate only for an additional fee, however if customer buys Omega watch in Switzerland, he or she always gets full paper version of the chronometer certificate for buying watch. It should be noted that the COSC tests only the mechanisms, not a wrist watch! Each movement of tested watch is removed from the case, placed in a temporary pouch, which has a temporary dial and hands. If the dial has no second hand, in case of need it will be added. Testing is made in this way: the mechanisms of 10 pieces are placed in special cells, which in their turn placed in a special frame in 10 "floors", so for one time are tested 100 movements. All mechanisms are winded by attached to the crown a special motor, not by an automatic module. As a result, the testing does not take into account the efficiency of the automatic winding. Testing of each mechanism lasts for 15 days in five different positions in the 3 - various temperatures (+8 ° C, +23 ° C and +38 ° C). The deviation of daily watch rate is fixed at each position and at each temperature, herewith are taken into account as the average estimates so the results of individual tests. Estimation is sometimes carried out according to the individual tests. All those minimum requirements necessary for obtaining the status of «chronometer», are recorded in the international standard ISO 3159-1976. Previously, the watch accuracy are watched by the operator, who recorded the testimony of each mechanism in a special table, but today this work is done by a scanning laser. The results are presented in the form of a file in the computer. On the basis of these data is filled a certificate. This certificate contains information about the category of each day of certain mechanism, its functional characteristics, as well as the diameter and thickness. Also can be specified information about the kind of the anchor escapement, about specifications of balance spring and the rim. For example, in the category I.1 is included mechanisms, diameter of which exceeding 20 mm, with the hairspiral and the spring motor. The square of such mechanism is more than 314 mm. Issued certificates can be of two types: normal and advanced. Conventional certificate contains the general results and expanded - the intermediate results. The cost of extended certificates is much higher. All data for 15 days are displayed in the table, so in the extended certificate can be contained 15 lines of data. In the first two days watches are tested in the position of 6N1, the next 2 days - in position 3H, then - in position 9H, further down of the dial (FH), and the dial up (CH). The next three days is made measurements at three different temperatures in the position CH, and finally - two days again in position 6H. Next to testimony of each day is mentioned the watch error in one day (compared with the standard), as well as the error between two days. The presence of the date of passing the test in certificate is required. Seven total significances are indicated in the bottom of the certificate. In case of discrepancy to norms, even one of these significances during the test the mechanism is disqualified from receiving a cherished paper. It should be noted that some watch manufacturers make more stringent tests than the COSC. For example, in the former Soviet Union there was an extremely tough test program of mechanisms. A watch had to meet the requirements of GOST - it was one of the test points. The duration of testing was 10 days. Watches were tested in four positions: 6H, 3H, CH, and 9H, as well as at temperatures of 0 ° C, +20 ° C and +40 ° C. A special watch station served as a sample for measurement. It becomes quite clear why are tested extremely expensive mechanisms, because such procedures are increasing the cost of each mechanism on 200 – 250 $. It should also be noted that the certificate is valid only at the time of testing, because nobody knows what will happen to it later: during the establishing in the case, in packaging, sending, in the demonstration and future operation of the owner. Sure, all can affect the watch work.
Next, we note seven major parameters on which depends, will get a mechanism in the watch case, or will be simply discarded:
1) Average daily watch rate. To determine these readings are taken into account the data of the first 10 days at 5 different positions, then summed and divided by the number of 10 days. To comply with the parameters of successful completion of the test average error of the rate should ranges from -4 to +6 seconds per day (daily rate is the deviation of the watch for day, which is the difference between the corrections at the beginning and end of day). 2) The average deviation of daily rate or deviation in five different positions. In the first 10 days watches are tested in 5 positions. The resulting is 50 measurements, each of which is admissible deviation of daily rate up to 2 seconds per day. This option allows you to judge the reliability of the watch. High-quality watch is stable, regardless of whether it is in hurry or behind. Whatever it was, a watch with stable rate is much easier to adjust, so the error is easily eliminated.
3) The maximum deviation of daily rate. This is the biggest difference between the measurements at two-day test in one position. To successfully pass the test the maximum difference should not exceed 5 seconds.
4) The difference between the daily rate in horizontal and vertical positions of the mechanism. Difference of -6 to 8 second is admissible. Some experts consider that this test reflects the enormous difference between mass and tuned by hand
5) The greatest difference between the average daily rate and daily watch rate (no more than 10 seconds). 6) Deviation of daily rate in temperature change on 1 Co. COSC from the daily rate at 38 ° C, subtract the rate at 8 ° C, and divide into 30. Deviation is from -0.6 to 0.6 seconds per day.
7) Change the daily rate between the first two days of tests and the last day. The change within 5 seconds is allowed.
In 1999, three representatives of COSC have tested 905,499 mechanical watch movements, 874,933 of which have been certified. Quartz movements have also been tested. From 76,442 movements have been successfully tested 71,603 pieces. The number of quartz models from year to year increases (for comparison: in 1995 3026 movements were presented to the testing).
On average, 96.5% watch movements get this certificate. In 1999 the greatest number of chronometers were released by Rolex (584,607 pieces), followed by Omega (137,750 pieces) and by Breitling (127,659 pieces). 60 companies complete this list.
Copies of famous Swiss watch brands
Perhaps everyone would agree that today the main problem of the Swiss watch industry are all kinds of fakes and copies of Swiss watches, which are persistently seeking to pass off as original watches of the most famous watch brands. Today, Chinese watches under the proud name of Swiss watches have flooded the entire Internet, a diverse assortment of which in some cases is a whole catalog of watches - fake watches. Many believe that to fake the well - known watch brands began relatively recently, but in fact this obsession pursues the watch makers from the birth of watch making. A striking proof of this is the next story. Jules - Louis Audemars and Edward - Auguste Piguet, the founders of the legendary watch brand Audemars Piguet, were known for their extreme ambition. When register their business their primary purpose they pointed out, "making precise and complicated watches with using the most modern production methods”. This is clearly still adhered by their receivers in creating of Audemars Piguet watches. But the point is not in this. The founders had no doubt that their watches would be the most subtle and complicated chronometers, which would be equipped with various kinds of complications: different types of repeaters, perpetual calendar, moon phase indicator, the function of jumping hour and world time. Masters had immediately patented their complications. Soon, in 1884 Audemars asked the authorities in New - York to help in the fight against counterfeit products. This whole story had happened with split - chronograph, which is characterized by its original design. It all started back in 1883, when Audemars were passing slowly down a street and suddenly saw in a glass window of Swiss brand C.H.Meylan Watch Co the replica watches of his own invention. Seeing this, he experienced a real shock. However Audemars have not been able to prove his innocence competitors, who insisted that it is their own invention - the fruit of hard work and pursuit of the complex mechanics. Audemars appealed for justice in court, where he demanded as proof of the veracity of his words his piece of the controversial mechanism. However, for Audemars it had become a daunting task: this split – chronograph had long migrated to America, which at that time reigned high demand for various split - chronographs. Audemars personally had to go to America in search of it. The search lasted for a long time: as a result of a small "investigation" conducted by an agent of Audemars Piguet Vittnauer, it became clear that the buyer has resold its own unique watch. In the end the searches were successful: the watch was found in one of the pawnshops and safely provided as evidence. Finally, Audemars managed to prove his innocence. Another, no less illustrative history is the legendary watchmaker Breguet. In addition to a skilled watchmaker, Breguet was a true entrepreneur: in 1797 he introduced a new sales system at his home watch store. He decided to sell his watches on a subscription in order to constantly have the opportunity to acquire the necessary tools and materials to ensure a constant influx of cash, as well as funding his research. During the life of the legendary master Breguet watches were frequently faked, and he had to fight against it. On the dial of his watch under position 12 o'clock, he placed a secret sign, which was a signature of the master and the number of watch mechanism. These designations were so tiny that the ability to observe this secret sign to appear only when tilted at certain angle, and under certain lighting conditions. However, this method was not successful, because from 1790 to 1823 in one original watch of the brand Breguet, exported from France, had approximately 500 counterfeit watches.
From the above it can be concluded that the history of the appearance of fake watches are very long. But there is no need be skeptical of all this, as "a fake watch industry" has often become the main driving force of progress throughout the watch industry. That is why such a phenomenon as a directory of counterfeit watches or watch - replicas of famous watch brands has found widespread. Today, the main reason why more and more people decide to buy a watch, to be exact copies of it - the lack of funds, as the price of some chronometers can reach a million dollars. However, two centuries ago, the main reason was not a financial disadvantage, but the lack of watches, as sometimes the master need months or even years for creating a watch. This is an automated production, or rather its absence, led to appear different watch copies. Famous watchmakers doubly treated to copies of their watches, because it served as associate of the new ideological incarnations, as well as a good advertisement for the watch itself. Some watchmakers hired artists to create copies of famous watch brands, and then putting a distinctive mark. That is why the very first watch replicas were created in the workshops of famous watch companies. The rich got the original watch created by the eminent master, and less wealthy got a quality copy. In the end, all were happy with their purchases: a client for its watches, the master of the presence of the client and the journeyman portion of the profit. But, perhaps, created by this way a Swiss watch, cannot be called copy, since it was created under the supervision and partial participation of the master. But sometimes the quality of the copy and the original was much different: the master’s watch was often significantly different by its impeccable finish. Another problem of the original watches and copies of Swiss watches was their subsequent repair, because until the twentieth century, the question of interchangeability of parts has not been resolved. Breaking of watch meant either dump or complete replacement of the mechanism that was unlikely. That all changed when there was an automated production, which allowed many watch manufactures to ensure quality and the same high quality production of all watches. Then the first large-scale battle with replicas of famous watch brands began. The first companies urged the public fight against the copies of Longines, Breguet, and others. The end of the twentieth century saw a real boom in all kinds of replica watches. The main reason for this was greatly increased prices for well-known Swiss watches, which at that time have become an attribute of the image. The biggest struggle with copies of recent decades has become an international campaign: "Fake Watches are for Fake People”. In 2009 Federation of the Swiss watch industry and the Swiss Foundation of Haute Horology jointly have launched a large-scale international company against the counterfeiting. Despite numerous efforts, the problem of counterfeiting and piracy continues to wreak havoc in the economies of almost all countries and is expanding rapidly through different distribution channels, especially online. And as we know Swiss watches are no exception. According to FH every year the market receives more than 40 million fake Swiss watches that bring a net profit of one billion dollars. The victims of this illegal trade are the most famous watch companies. The main objective of the campaign was to convey to the mind of consumers, that copies of Swiss watches - this is not fashionable and extremely silly. It should make it clear to people that man’s wrist watches and women's wrist watches should be exactly of original origin, since only in this case they can be considered as a perfect attribute of self expressions. The campaign has created a very distinctive banner, which shows a wrist of mannequin with wristwatch. The campaign’s slogan has become the term “Fake Watches are for Fake People!”, below of which on the banner is depicted the phrase "Be authentic. Buy real”. Perhaps this is a fairly effective way to alert the public about the growing problem in the watch industry.
In the list of Swiss movements, of course, the first indisputable place belongs to Swiss movement ETA. The company ETA, part of the Swatch Group Ltd, today is a giant industrial complex, which produces a heavy part of the movements for many watch companies. The company annually produces about 100 million mechanisms ETA of different calibers that, agree, is a very large number. This figure represents more than half produced Swiss movements, and about a tenth of world production of watch movements, which exceeded the billion-dollar figure in 1994. Draw your own conclusions! Throughout the company’s formation of history accompanied by numerous mergers, divisions, the whole process of which is quite similar to the genealogical tree of medium size.
The company ETA was founded in a result of merger of several independent factories for the production of movements and their components. In 1793, Isaac and David Benguerel with Julien and François Humbert-Droz created the first factory for the production of basic mechanisms (Fr. “Ébauche” means an incomplete mechanism consisting of the main platinum, bridges, transmission wheel, winding transferable movement and regulator), and in 1856 in Grenchen Urs Schild and Dr. Girard was founded a factory for the production of basic mechanisms and watches, which marked the beginning of the factory ETA. In 1926, ETA, FHF (Fr. Fabriques d'Horlogerie de Fontainemelon, founded in 1816) and AS (A. Schild SA, founded in 1896), together with other companies participated in the creation of Ebauches SA. Since the beginning of the Second World War and its accompanying challenges, the company ETA continued production of its basic mechanisms, becoming the undisputed leader in this field. 1978 was marked for the company by merger with AS, which expanded the range of produced mechanisms. In 1979, the company in one of its units arranged the production of tuning forks for quartz resonators. Subsequently, this unit has grown into a separate company called Micro Crystal. In 1982, in the result of the economic crisis the structure of ETA has been simplified, and the head office of the company is located in Grenchen.
Today, the company ETA is the foundation of the foundations on which rests the whole structure of SMH. It is a provider for all brands within the group, except for the watch company Blancpain, which in its some models uses mechanisms Frederic Piguet and the company Omega with its exclusive models. In the factories of ETA are also located the production lines of assembling Swatch and Flik Flak watches. The line of assembling of Swatch watches is fully automated and is the secret object of ETA. It is not surprising since it were Swatch watches that have become the main and most effective weapon in the competition during the quartz crisis that nearly destroyed the entire Swiss watch industry. Creation of the Swiss mechanism starts with the fabrication of very small and complex parts - microscopic watch screws, springs, axles, bearings for them, gearwheels and screw pairs. This complicated process takes place in tightly closed rooms without a single speck of dust - in a word sterile cleanliness, with the help of highly qualified personnel in special clothes, working on five hundred machines. For one week a team of 50 people with the latest technology produces 14 million parts, spending on all this about 1400 kg of steel, brass, 10 kg of beryllium copper, 900 kg of brass and 200 kg of nickel silver with a total weight of which 2.5 tons. An impressive figure! For watch quartz resonators are used grown in laboratories synthetic quartz crystals. This technology is similar to that used in the manufacture of microchips. The workshops for the production of quartz resonators is also kept the highest level of sterility, used special clothing for staff, use multiple filtering of ventilation air, and a high degree of automation. Even setting the frequency of the quartz resonator for watches, which is 32 768 Hz, is fully automatically. The staff carefully watches the monitors of screens as quartz crystals, "cut off" one time in one second. The company ETA includes more than 20 factories with the latest technical equipment and automation systems of production that are created and perfected the best minds of our time. 15 factories of ETA are located in Switzerland, 3 - in France, one - in Germany, Thailand and Malaysia. In the factories in Malaysia and Thailand, where are produced mechanisms for the local watch manufacturers, on the mechanisms are not applied the seal “Swiss Made”, although the requirements for movement quality are rather rigid, as in other factories of ETA. In the factories are produced as mechanisms, but also are completed many watches for customers of Swatch Group Ltd. The annual production of ETA, designed to meet the needs of the mechanisms of Swatch Group Ltd, is 20%.
The main pride of the company ETA is fully automated conveyors, producing ready movements and watches. Its secret technology and secret lines of assembly and movement production of ETA is carefully hided. This information contributes to the holding Swatch Group Ltd in a fiercely competitive struggle to maintain its enviable position. The company ETA carefully monitors the slightest changes in the market that allows it to penetrate even the "enemy territory". A striking example of this strategy is the situation with the Japanese watch company Casio. Despite the very high duties imposed on any activity of the foreign watch companies in the Japanese market, ETA signed a multimillion-dollar contract for the sale of its mechanisms Casio, while the company - compatriots Citizen and Seiko refused to order. ETA also made a pretty smart move by offering conditions is fully staged Casio. Calibers of mechanisms manufactured by ETA are presented in a fairly wide price range. That's why the company has allocated a separate series of mechanisms, which are distinguished by their price and intended use.
MECALINE SPECIALITIES: a series of reserved calibers - their wholesale trade is allowed to watch companies only within Switzerland. This series includes mechanical calibers with manual and automatic winding, which can be equipped with features such as indicator of the current date, week, month, moon phase indicator and power reserve, as well as chronograph functions and second time zone.
This series of mechanisms are designed by the subdivision Valjoux and mainly high-priced watches and "premium" class watches are equipped with them.
MECALINE: This series includes mechanical calibers both with manual and with automatic winding. Theses mechanisms can have an indicator of date and week. Typically, this series of mechanisms operating in watches of all categories, but in watches of high class are fitted by the refined mechanisms with additional features. THERMOLINE: This series consists of quartz chronometers with temperature compensation, all movements of which are equipped with low-battery indicator (EOL).
FLATLINE: The series of quartz movements with gold coating, which have a low battery indication function (EOL). Mechanisms are presented as round, rectangular and barrel-shaped. Watches of middle class and gold watches are equipped by movements of this series.
NORMFLATLINE: This series consists of quartz movements, which consist of metal and plastic parts, which greatly reduces their price. These mechanisms are with gold coating and function of low battery indicator (EOL). The mechanisms of this series are mainly used in wrist watches of all categories, except for prestige.
TRENDLINE: this series of economical quartz mechanisms for watches of mass production. All mechanisms are gold plated, represented by three hands, and are equipped with a low battery indicator (EOL). NORMLINE: This series with a set of mechanisms that have similar functions of the mechanisms of the above series. The only difference is that the mechanisms are assembled in China, not in Switzerland. This, of course, reduces the cost for many times. Watches of low and middle class are equipped with mechanisms from this series.
FASHIONLINE: this series is presented "disposable" quartz movements, which is almost entirely made of synthetic materials. In case of breakage, they cannot be repaired, and can only be replaced. All movements of this series have a function of low battery indication (EOL), and also have some functional differences: from traditional three hands to chronograph and alarm.
ECOLINE: this series of mechanisms with similar functions of mechanisms from FASHIONLINE series. The only difference is that the assembly operations performed in China.
Mechanisms of the last two series are used in watches of low and medium price category, as well as in fashion watches.
In addition to these mechanisms, ETA also produces special calibers designed for a certain watch company (for example, multifunctional mechanism for Tissot T-Touch watches with functions of chronograph, altimeter, thermometer, barometer and compass).
Companies using the ETA mechanisms
Today, ETA is one of the world's largest manufacturers of watch movements. ETA Swiss mechanisms are used by companies such as Tissot, Hamilton, Mido, Certina, Longines, Rado, Maurice Lacroix, Raymond Weil, TAG Heuer, which produce to market products of medium and high categories. However, the list of "clients" has been added by watch companies of premium class: Breitling, Chopard, IWC, Omega, Officine Panerai. Watch companies of high and premium class usually buy the basic mechanisms (Fr. ébauche), refined in their own factory. The manufactory ETA also engraved a logo of watch company knocks on the inertial load of the mechanical watches. Production of ETA is Swiss watch movement which means reliability, durability, quality, and a severe control over the technology of watch mechanisms manufacturing. The use of high-precision, fully automated production lines and assembly of the Swiss watch mechanisms allowed the company ETA to produce movements for watches of cheap and excellent quality. In the specification is the following parameter: "Type of movement: Swiss movement ETA", so if you have the watch with this kind of movement be sure this wrist watch with the mechanism of real Swiss quality with impeccable accuracy!
Another Swiss manufacturer of mechanisms for watches is the company Valjoux (in honor of the Vallée de Joux, “Joux Valley”). Basically, the company produces movements with chronograph function, which are widely used in the watches of middle and high cost. Initially created as an independent producer, today manufacture is part of ETA and is part of the Swatch Group. Within its activities under the auspices of Swatch Group the Valjoux division is responsible for the design and manufacture of movements Valjoux ETA 7750 and their variations (7751, 7753, 7754), which are very popular and are used in most mechanical chronographs. Among the "clients" of Valjoux can be distinguished such names as Certina, Omega, MareMonti, Longines, Tissot, Oris, Appella, TAG Heuer, IWC, Porsche Design, Sinn, and other!
Another, no less famous Swiss mechanism is the mechanism UNITAS. The appearance of this mechanism is inextricably linked with the Swiss watch company Auguste Reymond SA, which was founded in 1898 and is named after its founder Auguste Reymond in Tramelan. The company's products are always at the center of attention from collectors around the world. Its contribution in the production of movements the watch company Auguste Reymond SA made before the war years and before 60s released its legendary movements UNITAS, used in many watch companies. Even back in 1906 the company opened a factory Les Bjoux, in which produced the legendary mechanisms UNITAS. Swiss mechanisms UNITAS, produced in a factory of the watch company Auguste Reymond SA, were differed sufficiently high quality at an affordable price, so that other watch companies started their active buying. Two types of mechanism UNITAS - UNITAS 6497 and 6498 were able to ride out all the historical cataclysms of the twentieth century and they are in mass production to the present days. These legendary mechanisms are widely used almost all of watch companies, specializing in pocket watches.
Swiss corporations - giants Swatch Group and Richemont Group: Divide and Conquer!
Today, even the most uneducated people in the watch industry, no doubt, heard of this "institution" as the Swatch Group. It is a watch giant in the global watch industry, the volume of world sales of which is about 25%. The story of Swiss concern Swatch Group appearance is the following: in 1930 the watch company Omega and Tissot created a group Société suisse pour l'industrie horlogère (SSIH). Soon the company Lemania Watch Co & A. Lugrin came into the group, the main specialization of which was the manufacture of various complications (indicators of the moon phases, as well as sunrise and sunset, and indicator of the current date). By mutual decision the watch company Tissot has focused its production power on the “montres civils”, and the company Omega - on the “amme de luxe”. In 1931, the same watch companies Longines and Rado joined the group Allgemeine Schweizerische Uhrenindustrie AG (ASUAG), which was a response to the creation of SSIH. However, this separate existence ceased in 1983 when this two groups were combined into Sociґetґe de Microґelectronique et d'Horlogerie (SMH). In addition to combining of the two major Swiss watch associations, SMH was supplemented by such influential independent watch producers, as Breguet, Blancpain, Glashütte Original, Jaquet Droz, Léon Hatot, Omega, Rado, Longines (class “deluxe”), Tissot, Certina, UNION Glashütte, Balmain, Calvin Klein Watches & Jewelry, Hamilton, Mido, Endura (middle class) Flik Flak, and Swatch. These names are the main evidence of the power of the concern. In 1998 the group SMH was renamed the Swatch Group, which has been supplemented by the following companies: the oldest manufacturer of basic movements ETA; Lémania - manufacturer of high level calibers, supplemented with various complications; Frédéric Piguet - manufacturer of highly complex calibers; Valdar - the company of the production of mechanical watch components; Comadur - manufacturer of ruby axes and sapphire glasses; Nivarox - the company producing the pendulums, springs and other moving watch units; Meco - manufacturer of winding crowns, Universo - manufacturer of watch hands, the company Rubattel & Weyermann, producing dials; the company Lascor, providing the group with cases and bracelets; Favre & Perret and Georges Ruedin - manufacturers of high-quality cases; the company EM Microelectronic-Marin for the production of miniaturized micro schemes; Oscilloquartz SA - manufacturer of quartz generators; Micro Crystal – manufacturer of micro generators; the company Renata, producing miniature batteries; Lasag - manufacturer of laser equipment for industry; the company Swiss Timing Ltd., which specializes in equipment designed for sports timekeeping. This long list is not accidental: it fully proves that the Swatch Group - is a united highly organized organism that does not require external suppliers and can meet all its needs at the expense of its productive capacity. Even equipment for creating watch components and buildings for chronometers are made within the group. The division of ETA is the main weapon of Swatch Group in the competition, and on which depend the other watch manufacturers outside the ranks of the Swatch Group. In 2007 the Swatch Group and the American manufacturer of luxury items Tiffany & Co signed an agreement for a term of 20 years, according to which the joint company would set up production under the brand Tiffany & Co. This is another proof that the Swatch Group is very cleverly spread its influence around the world - from Asia to America. Swatch Group provides workplaces for more than 20 thousand people. In 2007 the group was able to pass billion barriers: net profit of Swatch Group amounted to 1 billion. CEO of Swatch Group was the son of the legendary Nicolas Hayek - Nick Hayek (younger). The main office is located in the Swiss town Bienne. At the end of this short Information for reflection about Swatch Group an interesting fact of the group's activities should be noted. In 1994, the Swatch Group and the company Daimler-Chrysler has been involved in a project of designing and creating micro cars Smart - Swatch Mercedes ART. However, due to disagreements with partners Swatch Group refused to participate in the project. A pity, it would be interesting to see this creation.
Another no less weighty company Richemont, also has a very great influence both in Switzerland and around the world. Richemont is a Swiss holding company, which specializes in the manufacture of luxury goods. In 1988, a South African businessman Johann Rupert founded Richemont. In addition to the production of luxury watches, the company is involved in such industries as manufacturing of jewelry, writing items, clothing and firearms, which not very match to this list. The company has listing on SIX Swiss Exchange and the JSE Securities Exchange exchanges. It is no accident that the main specialization of the company is luxury items, because the list of group’s names includes the names of brands of class "luxury": the German watchmaker A. Lange & Söhne, the English largest producer of men's clothing, watches and leather accessories Alfred Dunhill, the Swiss watchmaker Baume et Mercier, the French company of expensive jewelry and watches Cartier, the French brand of women's clothing Chloé, the watch company IWC Schaffhausen, Jaeger-LeCoultre Manufacture and Roger Dubuis SA (60%), the English manufacturer of firearms James Purdey and Sons, the French company of the production of leather goods Lancel, the German manufacturer of writing instruments and watches Montblanc International GmbH, the Italian watch company Officine Panerai, the legendary Swiss company of the production of jewelry and watches Piaget SA, the luxury watch brand Vacheron Constantin, the French company Van Cleef & Arpels SA, producing exclusive jewelry and watches. The group has been even included by the Chinese brand Shanghai Tang, which produces men's and women's clothing, as well as the British company Net-a-Porter Ltd., which specializes in clothing sales over the Internet. Such a wide range of products, producing by Richemont group, allows it to maintain the highest position in the global luxury goods market.
In 2007 the Richemont group and Polo Ralph Lauren Inc. established a joint venture under the name “Polo Ralph Lauren Watch and Jewelry Company” (SARL), in which each party has 50%.
The Richemont Group provides workplaces for more than 22 thousand people. Two-thirds of employees work in Europe and a quarter - in Asia. However, the Asian workers are not engaged in production: their main specialization - retail, distribution, after-sales service, and various administrative functions. In 2009 net profit of the group was 600 million Euros. The group’s headquarter is in Geneva. The executive director of Richemont is Johann Rupert.
Swatch Group and Richemont Group operate on the Swiss and international market for a long time, while continuing to supplement their lists with new brands. It can surely be say that watch making will live, at least, in face of Richemont and Swatch Group.
Watch exhibitions: diversity of the watch world
BaselWorld - is a known international exhibition of watches and jewelry in international level. The exhibition is annually held in the Swiss city Basel since 1973. Today it is one of the largest and most important events in the watch industry. Organization of BaselWorld in Switzerland as a center of watch industry due to the fact that the production of watches is growing every year and is constantly evolving, which is qualitatively displayed directly on the models and on watch and jewelry brands. The history of the exhibition BaselWorld began in 1917, when it was first organized the first Swiss exhibition – fair of samples in Basel MUBA (Schweizer Mustermesse Basel) with a special section devoted to watches and jewelry. In 1925 MUBA organized an exhibition, which was attended by several watch factories that in 1931 at the first Swiss fair Schweizer Uhrenmesse were presented in separate specialized pavilions. 1972 was marked by an important event in the history of the exhibition: MUBA organized an exhibition called “Europe's meeting place”, which brought together different companies from France, Italy, Germany and the UK. In 1983, this acquired greater significance event was renamed BASEL plus two figures, symbolizing the year of the exhibition, for example, BASEL 83. The exhibition BASEL 86 already included in its list exhibitors from outside Europe, which much increased flow of visitors not only from Europe but from countries outside it.
In 1995, the title of the exhibition again was modified: now it became known as “BASEL 95 - The World Watch, Clock and Jewellery Show”. In 1999 was held the grand opening of the new watch pavilion "Pavilion 1" with size 2 × 18,000 sq. m, where was possible to built stands up to three floors. The precise organization of exhibition – fair by sectors was established. The exhibition was organized on three floors with a new design. The Basel exhibition in 2000 was marked by an increase of visitors to 6%, which was a significant increase for this event. In 2003 was made one more step in the future rapid development of this Swiss "brand" - a new corporate identity - BASELWORLD, The Watch and Jewellery Show. This name of the exhibition completely characterizes the directivity of the event: a leading position not only in Switzerland and Europe, but around the world. In 2004 a new complex was built - Hall 5. The Hall of the Universe includes national pavilions. The exhibition area has been increased to 160,000 square meters. In 2005, the Hall of Elements has been reconstructed, providing companies multistory stands for displaying of precious stones, diamonds and pearls. Today the BaselWorld exhibition brings together about 2,100 exhibitors from more than 45 countries, as well as companies specializing in precious stones. All exhibitors and professionals the industry during the exhibition demonstrate their newest products to the media, collectors and connoisseurs of beauty. Exhibition’s visitors can get acquainted with the whole range shown directly. The exhibition area is over 160,000 square meters with different pavilions in several halls. Products are divided into sectors, which are presented in six exhibition halls, for example, the Hall of the Universe, the Hall of Elements, the Hall of Visions, etc. BaselWorld exhibition’s management cares about the constant updating of design rooms. In 2007, the Hall of Dreams has been completely renovated. Each watch and jewelry company presents its products in its own pavilions. The demonstration of the company's products provides more complete introduction and overview of the market and its condition, and also creates a solid ground for future discoveries of new opportunities and find new partners. The BaselWorld exhibition also gives companies full accurate information about the state of its main competitors (unless, of course, they participate at the exhibition). The BaselWorld exhibition attracts more than 94 thousand visitors, retailers and wholesalers from all over the world who can find the latest trends and innovations watch and jewelry industries. The participations of exhibition can also visit BaselWorld Village, located the next. "The Village" offers various services such as bars and restaurants, rest rooms, open areas where future partners can discuss their issues of cooperation in a cozy atmosphere. The BaselWorld Village is open from 6 pm to 2 am. Visitors need a 10 - minute ride by taxi, tram or bus to visit the village.
Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie (SIHH)
One of the most elite and private events in the watch industry is the SIHH (Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie). At first time the salon opened its doors to a limited circle of people and companies in 1991. The place of this elite event was Geneva hall for exhibitions Palexpo, where is annually held SIHH. It is therefore never a question about the future of SIHH. However, the organization of Salon SIHH always coincides with the period of the exhibition BaselWorld. It is no accident: the organizers of the salon "take care" of their guests, because, coming to Switzerland in the spring, they go immediately to the two most significant events of the watch world. In addition to care, there is another reason for the double event: during the exhibition in Switzerland operate additional trains, buses and flights to take a large number of guests. It is more expedient to carry out this work once a year, so that once again not to disturb the peaceful life of citizens. In contrast to the exhibition BaselWorld, the Salon SIHH – is closed event, which may attend by invitation only. However, this does not affect the number of visits: the salon is annually visited by about 10,000 people. The number of watch brands that are represented in the salon is much lower than at the BaselWorld fair. The main participating brands are the following: Audemars Piguet, Piaget, Baume & Mercier, Girard-Perregaux, Vacheron Constantin, A. Lange & Sohne, IWC, Jaeger-LeCoultre, JeanRichard, Van Cleef & Arpels, Panerai, Parmigiani Fleurier, Roger Dubuis, Cartier, Officine Panerai, Alfred Dunhill and Montblanc. It should be noted that the predominant majority of the names in this list are the companies within the mighty group Richemont, while at the show BaselWorld, the main hall "occupied" by the companies of the concern Swatch Group. The salon SIHH is an event for professionals dictating fashion for watches and jewelry. Invitations are sent by the organizers only to journalists, watchmakers, jewelers, retailers and other connoisseurs of the watch making industry. The main highlight of the interior is the organization the pageant during its opening, which has always distinguished by its originality and secrecy. This little "mystery" creates a special atmosphere, which prepares visitors for the contemplation of luxury items in the salon. But let's not argue: the salon SIHH cannot compete on scale, by the amount of participating companies and exhibition space with the BaselWorld. However, the number of exclusive models presented at SIHH does not give up its position. This is quite different: every prestigious watch company strives to become a member of this elite salon. The organizers of the salon considers all applications without exception, but in its ranks SIHH takes only the best of the best, exhibiting their exclusive model on the stands. For this reason, a bold statement about the fact that Salon SIHH gathers all the best samples of watches and jewelry is justified.
Geneva Time Exhibition (GTE)
Of course, our list of watch exhibitions would be incomplete without such a young but very famous among the watch industry – without watch exhibition Geneva Time Exhibition (GTE). At first time watch exhibition GTE was organized in Geneva in 2010, the main task of which was to bring the original creations of young watch companies and independent watchmakers to the public. The organizers of this «useful» event have become Florence Noel - a specialist in communication of luxury brands, Dominic Frankino - the organizer of exhibitions and events, and Paola Orlando. According to organizers, spoke at the pre-press - conference, the main purpose of the exhibition GTE - to create optimal conditions for the implementation of creative watches of just those producers who are not part of large corporations. The official partners of the exhibition are well-known companies such as auction house Sotheby's, the car brand Audi and legendary brand of champagne - Laurent - Perrier (yes, apparently, plenty of guests could enjoy the taste of unrivaled drink). The organizers provide to watchmakers stands – modules of "luxury" class with an area of 9 and 12 square meters, as well as all necessary equipment. This is the main difference from the BaselWorld exhibition, where the watch and jewelry companies buy in this short period of time square meters in the halls, setting on them their own pavilions and stands, the costs of some amount millions, such as, Rolex. The popularity of GTE is growing: this data indicate that in 2010 at the exhibition were participated about 30 firms, in 2011 - twice as much. The cost of participation in this event is 13,000 CHF. The admission is free for visitors, but you must pre-accreditation on the website of the organizers. The watch exhibitions are quite an effective way to promote products, as well as new contracts for future fruitful cooperation. In conclusion, it can surely be added that the Swiss exhibitions are very ably and clearly divided between concern Swatch Group, Richemont and the independent watchmakers.
Switzerland - a country of accuracy, reliability and great watchmakers!
Geneva – the city of watchmakers
The second largest Swiss city and the first in watch making - Geneva is located on the shores of Lake Geneva. This city in which life flows full and where watch making has taken its “second breath”, which has become really high. The Swiss city Geneva is not only a center of watch making: Geneva – is the centre of unthinkable number of international organizations (UN, WHO, ILO, WTO, WMO and the World Intellectual Property Organization, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Geneva Association and others), where are employing a huge number of foreigners (40% of the population of Geneva). I think this short list of just some of the Geneva organization is sufficient to verify the importance of this small town that has become literally "capital of the world." But first let’s make a brief digression into the history of the city Geneva. The first mention of Geneva applies to the I century BC., when Julius Caesar called Geneva "ciivitas", which means the main city of districts, where in 379 was located the residence of the bishop, became the first in Switzerland. Soon, however, Geneva was conquered by the Burgundians and turned to the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians, on a hill of which was built the royal palace. The glee of Burgundians did not last long: in 534 Geneva went into the power of the Franks, who already in 1032 came in Germany. The immense popularity Geneva has acquired in XIV - XV centuries. During this period, there were organized many fairs which have become a favorite place for Italian, French, German and Flemish traders, that is, perhaps, was the development of credit - banking system, then made the Geneva center of global finance. From 1798 to 1814 Geneva was part of France, and in 1815 it was joined by the French Savoy, with which it formed the 22nd canton of Switzerland. The second half of XIX century was marked by the growth of international importance: the charter of the International Committee of the Red Cross was signed in 1864 in Geneva. It was here where was created for the first time in history an international organization to promote cooperation among nations and guarantees world peace - the League of Nations, the main function of which has taken the United Nations, created after World War II. It is no accident that it was the "capital of the world" where was founded the Haute Horlogerie, the main cause of which has become religious persecution of the Huguenots in Europe. All the "minds" of Europe was gradually concentrated in Geneva, where skilled craftsmen have perfected their skills. But soon, thanks to the efforts of Calvin's Geneva became the center of the European Reformation. Calvinist reform imposed a ban on the wearing of jewelry and led to the fact that skilled jewelers chosen a new activity - horology. The first watchmaker of Geneva was Huguenot, who emigrated from the French Lorraine, information of who has been preserved in the historical sources. Already in 1574 in Geneva, there were 16 masters, and in 1686 - 680. By the end of the XVIII century 6000 Geneva watchmakers engaged in manufacturing of high-quality Swiss watches, which are distinguished by excellent quality and high accuracy.
One of the first watch companies of Geneva is the watch house of Haas & Cie, which has created a flawless reputation, thanks to improved technology for processing gold and platinum. Swiss, or rather the Geneva Manufactory was founded in 1848 by Leopold and Benjamin Haas on the coast of the Geneva Mont Blanc. The main focus of the company was the creation of complex and exclusive models with such features as perpetual calendar, dual time, chronograph, and also double as well as the company began to create elegant enameled pocket and wrist watches. Haas & Cie watches are still characterized by its simplicity of style and elegance - features that the company has carried through the centuries. The manufacture Haas & Cie is one of the few companies, which watches are fully satisfied the strict requirements of the "Geneva Seal." The company demonstrates what highly skills possessed Geneva watchmakers of the XIX century, and the company uses the basic principles of watch making for its watch creating to this day.
Another prestigious Geneva watch manufactory is the company Frederique Constant, representing luxury watches. Frederique Constant brand was founded in 1904 by Frederique Schreiner and Constant Stas. Then they decided to manufacture low-cost watches with no extra functions. However, the manufacture was not a success and soon sank into obscurity. Only in 1988 the Swiss watch manufacture was revived thanks to the efforts of the spouses Alette Bax and Peter Stas, who are descendants of the founders. Today, Frederique Constant watches are known for their high Swiss quality at reasonable prices.
Also in Geneva is located the Watch Museum (well, where it should be placed, if not here), which is considered one of the main attractions of this Swiss city. The museum was opened in 1989 thanks to efforts of the Swiss watch company Patek Philippe, immediately becoming a favorite destination of many tourists. The founding date was not chosen by chance: in that year the legendary watch manufacture Patek Philippe celebrated its 150 - year anniversary. In the Museum of watches is quite competent and restraint are shown exhibits that illustrate the entire 500 – year - old way of becoming a high watch making. Many of the exhibits date from the 16th century. In the collections of the museum you can find everything: from pocket and wrist watches to chronometers and jewelry watches. Among the exhibits you can find a pocket watch and table clock by Patek Philippe, made for the British Queen Victoria, a wrist watch of Russian genius Leo Tolstoy, a watch of Peter Tchaikovsky, Richard Wagner. The museum also presents a variety of production tools, with using of which had been created first watches of watchmakers in Europe. It surely can be said that Geneva has become the center of not only Europe but the entire watch industry.
Neuchatel: a "new castle" of the Swiss watch industry
The Swiss city Neuchatel is also known for its contribution to the Swiss watch industry. Translated from the French Neuchâtel literally means "new castle." This is a small cozy town on the shores of the lake. The main attraction of the city is Neuchatel castle, which appeared in the Middle Ages as the residence of the local graphs. The most famous native of the city Neuchatel is Abraham - Louis Breguet - the founder of the famous watch company Bréguet, who made an invaluable contribution to the watch industry. Despite the fact that Breguet opened his first store in Paris, it can rightly be regarded as a Swiss watchmaker, but rather a watchmaker from the Swiss town Neuchatel. He belongs to such invention, as the tourbillon - a mechanism that can compensate the effects of gravity on the watch accuracy. The wristwatches Bréguet were favored by such famous figures as Queen Marie-Antoinette, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of Russia Alexander I, Empress Alexandra, Queen Victoria and Sir Winston Churchill. Believe me, this list could go on. Today the company Bréguet is included in the group Swatch Group, but it does not interfere the company to create its truly luxurious watches according to its age-old traditions.
One of the best manufactory for the production of high quality pocket watches and pendant watch is located in Neuchatel. The company Aerowatch, founded in 1942, today in creating its perfect creations uses unique traditional technologies, producing parts for its watches exclusively by original schemes. All watches Aerowatch are created entirely by hand and by skilled craftsmen. In this city is even located the famous Italian watch company Officine Panerai after the acquisition in 1997 by concern Richemont. First of all, the company acquired the old police station in Neuchâtel, which after upgrading has become the factory for assembly and testing Officine Panerai watches. Also, it is in Neuchâtel where in 1967 has been created the world's first quartz watch Beta - 21, which can be worn on the wrist. In 1970, these watches were put into mass production by several companies in Switzerland.
Grenchen: the origins of the watch industry
In Switzerland, almost all towns in one degree or another are related to horology. No exception and the town Grenchen, located in the north - west of Switzerland at the foot of the Jura Mountains. The history of the famous Swiss watch manufacturer Eterna is inextricably linked with this small Swiss town, with a population of no more and no less than 16 thousand people. Mid of 16th - century was a difficult period for Switzerland, since around the whole country the economic the crisis broke out which left a devastating mark on the residents of this small town. To restore the economy of a small town Grenchen the municipal council has adopted the suggestion of Dr. Joseph Girard (1803-1869) to begin development of the watch industry. In the case from the municipal budget has been allocated funds, which in 1851 by the efforts of Joseph Girard and Farmer Anton Schild was organized a training seminar. Basics of watch making the residents of Grenchen were taught together with famous watchmakers, specially invited for this important event. Apparently, plucking more experience and skill, Joseph Girard, along with his brother Yuseb Girardeau opened their own shop, which was engaged in the assembly of watch movements “Girard Freres & Kunz.” However, the economic crisis forced them to close their shop. However, Joseph Girard was different by his persistence, which forced him to re-create its own watch manufacture. At this time, Joseph’s partner became the son of Anton Urs Schild - an ordinary school teacher. Thus, by the joint efforts was founded the company “Dr. Girard & Schild” - progenitor of the modern watch brand Eterna. Today the core competence of the company is quartz watches and mechanical watches with automatic winding and chronograph function. Also in Grenchen in 1919 was based the watch company TITONI – the most Swiss watch company. The company is still run by descendants of its founders. The Swiss company TITONI is known worldwide for its watches with impeccable quality and reliability characteristics. Some models TITONI have contributed to the history. For example, TITONI watch helped to get a British colonel lost in the jungles of Burma. This Swiss brand demonstrates the excellent quality of Swiss watches, supporting all of the facts.
However, the most famous "institution" of a town Grenchen is well - known company for the production of various high-precision mechanisms for watches - ETA. Founded back in 1793, this major company maintains its leadership position for a long period.
ETA – is the pride of the Swiss watch industry, and this pride was founded in the cozy town Grenchen.
Measured life of the Swiss town Grenchen, flowing to its usual special way, allows all craftsmen working here, being away from the madding crowd, to devote themselves to their favorite activity - the production of fine watches and precision movements.
La Chaux-de-Fonds: "City - Factory"
The Swiss town La Chaux - de – Fonds - is one of the largest watch manufacturers. This is a real "city - factory", the main specialization of which is Swiss watches. The town La Chaux - de - Fonds has found its rightful place among the World Heritage site. This watch town La Chaux - de - Fonds is located on the west of Switzerland and is one of the highest cities of Europe (height above sea level is 992 meters). The population of this watch town is 37,000. Despite its small area and population, this city is one of the major cities of the Swiss watch industry. The first mention of the town La Chaux - de - Fonds refers to 1350. La Chaux-de-Fonds began to develop rapidly after the end of the Thirty Years' War. Already at the beginning of XVIII century there began to appear the makings of watch making, which has turned this city into a major industrial center. In 1794 the city broke out a huge fire which destroyed a third of the city. However, this was a good start for watchmakers, since it was redesigned for the convenience of watchmakers. From this we can judge how important at that time was a difficult profession of watchmaker. It is no accident that the natives of this town are many talented and legendary watchmakers, and that this city is one of the centers, which are concentrated industrial power of the watch industry.
One of these famous watchmakers is Pierre Jean Droz, who was born in La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1721. His first shop he opened in his hometown in 1738. Next, he opened workshops in London and Geneva. Soon, his workshops have grown into a company that specializes in the manufacture of mechanical watches, and dolls - automatons. Pocket watches of the Swiss watchmaker Jaquet Droz enjoyed great success at the royal court of King Ferdinand VI, which are still preserved in the imperial court. For 300 years the Swiss company Jaquet Droz has been an inexhaustible source of inspiration for many watchmakers. Jaquet Droz watches are a true embodiment of luxury and flawless Swiss quality. At the mention of the legendary Swiss watch brand Omega immediately arise association with the Swiss quality and the numerous discoveries. This "record" brand was created precisely in the town La Chaux-de-Fonds, which is a non-random choise. The Swiss company Omega was founded in 1848 by Louis Brandt, who was only 23 years old. Initially the company was a usual workshop for assembling pocket watches. Louis worked throughout the winter and in the spring went to Europe for sales of manufactured products during the winter. His high quality watches were loved by many, and ensured his quite prosperous existence. After the death of Louis, thanks to the efforts of his sons - Louis-Paul and Cesar - a small workshop has become into a real factory. This Swiss company got its name Omega in honor of created in 1884 caliber 19 lines, which immediately won a resounding success, that was the result of company’s renaming from the company Louis Brandt & Fills into Omega. Crisis in the 70 - 80th of the last century, brought the company Omega into bankruptcy. At this time, the Japanese company Seiko began to take steps to acquire this legendary factory. From this "eastern occupation" the company Omega is saved by Swiss banks. This was a very correct decision, which has kept the basis of Swiss watch making industry within Switzerland. Today, Omega watches are known around the world. Throughout its history watches of Omega have been a timekeeper of many Olympic Games, were on the Moon, adorned the wrists of Hollywood stars in many famous films and won numerous awards.
Biel - center of the world watch industry
The Swiss town Biel (from Ger. Biel) and Bien (from Fr. Bienne) is located on the north - west of Switzerland on the shores of the same name lake. The first settlement on the area of contemporary Beal was laid down by the Celts and was named Belenus (Celtic deity). The city was built already in the XI century. In 1352 was made an everlasting covenant with Bern. Today, Bill is the largest bilingual city in Switzerland. The Swiss city Biel - is the world center of the watch industry. It is not surprising, since in this city are located the headquarter of Federation of Swiss watch industry, the headquarter of Swatch Group, the manufacturing center of the watch company Rolex, the headquarter and manufacture the watch company Glycine. Perhaps it is enough that the city Biel can be considered as watch town, and even the city center of the watch industry. About the Swiss watch industry federation and the Swatch Group has been mentioned above.
I would like to say a few words about the watch company Glycine, which was founded in Biel in 1914.The founder of the company was Eugene Meylan, who created a miniature mechanism for fine women's watches of gold and decorated with diamonds. Glycine watches throughout the history of its existence were a real find for collectors.
Of course, the legendary luxury watch brand Rolex knows everyone, even the most distant from the watch industry people. The foundation year of the company’s Rolex can be regarded 1910 when a shrewd young man, Hans Wilsdorf decided to pay tribute to wristwatch, adjusting the production of watches in the city Biel. Today, Rolex watches are among the most accurate watches in the world, it is also a constant attribute of a successful person.
In the city Biel are located a huge number of museums: the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of Engineering, the Museum of Newhouse, Optical Museum, the Museum of Modern Art and, of course, the Museum watch.
Le - Locle: "City of accuracy"
List of watch cities in Switzerland, perhaps, should be complete by a small town Le - Locle. In terms of population it is one of the smallest Swiss cities. The city is situated at the foot of the Jura Mountains. The town Le - Locle is distinguished by its unique ordering layout of the streets. This is explained by the fact that the original architecture of the city was developed according to the needs of watchmakers, creating the most favorable conditions for their difficult work. Because of its special architecture the city called "City of accuracy." In 2009 Le - Locle has been included in the list of World Heritage of UNESCO.
The main reason of including in this important list is the fact that the city is a unique urban and architectural ensemble, which is entirely devoted to the watch industry, originated here in the XVIII century. It is the watch city of Le – Locle which is home of such world-famous watch companies like Tissot, Ulysse Nardin and Zenith. The Swiss watch company Tissot has appeared in the town of Le - Locle in 1853 by Charles Tissot and his son Charles - Emile. At first their business was a usual workshop, in which in the winter period worked farmers. However, after the successful sale of a pocket watches the company Tissot became the official watch supplier of the Russian Imperial Court in 1866. Throughout the existence of the brand there are on many different achievements on its account. Today, the Swiss watch company Tissot has 150 offices worldwide. Each year, the company sells about 1 million pieces of Tissot. Tissot’s fans were Elvis Presley, Nelson Mandela and Grace Kelly.
Almost simultaneously with the foundation of Tissot in Le - Locle, here in 1846 was found for the well-known watch manufacture Ulysse Nardin, which since its founding and to this day, constantly proving excellent quality of its watch creations. The Swiss company Ulysse Nardin has won 4300 awards, including 18 gold medals. Since 2000, Ulysse Nardin four times was awarded by the prize "For innovation" in which it has no equal among other watch brands. Created by skilled craftsmen watch model Astrolabium Galileo Galilei has been recorded in the Guinness Book of Records as the most complicated watch.
The birthplace of Swiss watch manufacture Zenith is also Le - Locle. The company Zenith was founded in 1865 by a Swiss man Georges Favre - Jacques. Ten years after the founding in the factory were working about 1,000 employees. The company is credited of creating the most precise chronograph in the world - El Primero, founded in 1969 and which operates in some models of Rolex. The company Zenith has 1500 awards and more than 50 legendary calibers in its range. Today, it is an independent Swiss watch manufactory, which produces all the details on its own factory.
Le - Locle is also home to the legendary watchmaker Abraham - Louis Perrelet, who became the greatest watchmaker and inventor.
Father of Louis Perrelet almost all his time spent creating tools that were designed for watchmakers. The work of father was watched by the young Perrelet who was so coveted by watch making that in the 20 - year old he was plunged into horology. Perrelet – is the first watchmaker in Le - Locle, produced a watch with a cylindrical and duplex escapement function with calendar and equation of time. He became a watchmaker with an excellent reputation who had been accessed by watchmakers with years of experience. His major works have been devoted to the creation of the movement with automatic winding. During his 80 “watch years life” Perrelet invented, developed and refined a number of new mechanisms, significantly improved the watch work. Among his many inventions are registered, such as the rotor, self-winding mechanism, repeater, watch with a cylinder and a two-step escapements, with complete calendar and sync, the first pocket watch, winded itself on the motion of the body. All this has freed the way for the master to develop the centrifugal weight fixed to the central axis of the movement, which today is known as a "rotor".
In fact, Perrelet watch brand was born in this town of Le - Locle, where Abraham-Louis Perrelet decided to devote himself to horology, over the years established a reputation as a skilled watchmaker - a true innovator in the business.
In addition to these legendary factories in the Museum of hours among the exhibits which are all different times periods. In fact, Perrelet watch brand was born in this town Le - Locle, where Abraham - Louis Perrelet decided to devote himself to horology, over the years established a reputation as a skilled watchmaker - a true innovator in the business.
In addition to these legendary factories in the Watch Museum among the exhibits of which is presented all different times periods.
Switzerland can rightfully be called country of watch cities. Watch industry of Switzerland is the third largest exporter after the engineering industry and chemical industry. Switzerland and watches - are two inseparable concepts and the famous phrase "Swiss watch" was born, which has become idiomatic. Today, buy a watch of Swiss origin can be virtually anywhere in the world. On the watch shelves of any country can be met the Swiss men's watches and ladies watches. One can buy watches of various models: from inexpensive quartz to expensive gold mechanical. Swiss watches for many centuries have won the respect, using the constant demand around the world. Proven over the centuries, the Swiss watch industry enjoys the same respect and demand worldwide.