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Watch Terms Dictionary

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   

A

Average diurnal variation a watch run received in x-number of days and divided in the number of days during which were taking the examination.

A countdown timer a device placed in a movement, which lets to conduct a countdown in a set period of time.

Arm a prolonged part which exactly connects other parts of a movement.

Assembling and finishing a process of composing and testing all the details and mechanisms of a watch.

Altimeter a supply which identifies the height above sea level owing to atmosphere pressure. The level of atmosphere pressure make an influence on the accuracy of a speed. In the case of increasing height and lowering the pressure air resistance gets lower in a watch case, the frequency of movements increases and watch starts to work faster.

Analog Display it shows time with the help of relatively moving marker and blade (hands of a dial as usual).

Analog watch a watch which indicate the time with the help of hands.

Antimagnetic a kind of watch which is not subjected to a magnetic influence. For antimagnetic watch case making a special alloy is used. It protects watch form magnetization.

Aperture a small hole in a dial which shows the date, day of a week and other things like that.

Appliqué the figures and symbols are cut out from a metal and fixed in a dial.

Astronomic watch a kind of watch supplied with extra indications in a dial, which show Luna phases, the time of a sunrise and a sunset. Sometimes is shows the scheme of planet and constellation movement.

Atmosphere (atm.) - a unit of pressure measure. It is often used in horology for waterproof denoting. 1Atm. Is equal to 10, 33meters deep.

Axle one of a movement details which is used for an axis pier and hour wheel fixing.

Arbor, shaft a cylindrical part (mostly with sapphires) or processed cut parts.

Anti-shock watch a watch supplied with an anti-shock device to which thin parts of a balance are attached. Being hit, in the case of mobility of piers, axis moves up and aside, resting against once thickened parts to some special limiters.

Alarm a pocket watch or a hand watch of a small size, supplied with alarming mechanism which turns on at a set time.

Axis a pat of a movement of a cylindrical shape with axle journals or processed or cut parts.

Autoquartz movement a combination of automatic and quartz movement. Generator charges mini-accumulator of watch while humane hand moves. The energy of fully charger accumulator is enough for 50-100 days of work.

Automatic movement watches supplied with such movement are winded up automatically. In simple mechanic watches movements spring is winded up by a crown. The system of auto winding up reduces the need of a constant rewind because metal load in the form of sector fixed in the axis is rotates in the case of any movement winding up the spring. In order to avoid excessive winding up and movement breaking up a special protecting clutch is set in in order to slide when spring is winded up enough

Automatic adjustment of movement steadiness a term denoting automatic regulating of crutch state towards the release wheel in the case of high amplitude pendulum movement. In the case of exact friction selection between axis and supplementary disk an even sound tick-tack can be achieved when the high amplitude pendulum movement is ended up .

Automatic night delivery sound the function is available in repeaters watch and carillions, it lets to switch off auditory message at night time.

Automatic tune changer is an extra function of repeaters and carillions which changes playing melody every hour.

Académie Horlogère des Créateurs Indépendants (AHCI) is a society which was founded by Svend Andersen and Vincent Calabrese in 1985 in order to renew traditional watchmaking handicraft which can be equal to mechanic watch manufacturing producing. It is located in Wichtrach in Bern. AHCI is international organization consists of 36 members and 5 candidates from more than 12 countries which produce different kinds of mechanic clock and watch (pocket watch, hand watch musical watch, table watch and pendulum watch).


B

Barrel is a wheel made of toothed disk and cylindrical case. Barrel turns free around the axis. Barrel is coupled with a first pinion of a toothy gear of a watch, it turns slowly and its arch of turning changes between 1/9 and 1/6 turn per hour.

Brege spring is a spring which has inside and outside ends curved in order to make system of a balance spring independent from system isochronism. The invention belongs to Abraham Louis Brege. A twincept is an effect of drifting indications at an analog dial.

Bevel is a polished, splayed surface for sharp corners reduction.

Brace, Clamp is a device for fixing and keeping. Fastening crown is a device for winding crown and main spring fixing, also it is made for support of a sliding spring.

Balance-Spring Stud is a part which is usually fixed by a screw to a nub of a balance cock.

Bar, Bridge, Cock is a metal part at witch for instance one of the pins placed at a moving part of a watch usually swing. Bars are usually called in compliance with some suitable part.

Bar (Lug) at a watch there is a thing metal rod, fixed between nubs of a strap buckle.

Baguette is a watch movement of a squared shape. Also it is a way of a gems cut.

Balance wheel is a resonance device which differentiated the period of a watch movement while swinging. It consists of a wheel and a spring. The spring affords automatically return to a zero position and to set exactly the period of work.

Balance-Spring is a small volute spring fixed in the ends of a balance and sound hammer. Volute spring balance regulates a watch, which accuracy depends on the quality of a balance spring.

Brass is an alloy of a copper and zinc (30%:40%). Bars and wheels are made of brass.

Balance-Cock is a part of a balance which particularity is a hole which contains a strut for a volute-spring balance. It works as a transmission leverage for a moving pointer.

Bezel Manual Winder(BMW) it is widely spread among pilot watch models.

Burnishing is a way if pins polishing which is made by a polishing tool under a pressure.

Baguette is a watch movement of a squared shape. Also it is a way of a gems cut.

Balance is a kind of a swing system which consists of balance wheel and a spring. It balances the movement of a gear mechanism.

Bezel it is a ring fixed around the crystal. In a bezel many different indications can be placed. They can show different indications depending watch specialization, the time of sinking and the time of surfacing in diver watch can be shown here; speed (tacheometric scale), seconds in chronographs are also can be displayed in the bezel. Sometimes bezel can turn around.

Bicolor watch is a term which denotes a watch which case and a bracelet are made of gold and steel combination, or which has a partial gilding.

Block, Stud in leverage of a crutch mechanism there is a gab which has a block. The block is inserted into a safety pin. A stud of a case together with or without a belt is used for fixing a bracelet.

British Horology Institute (BHI) is an institution of watch manufacturing of the United Kingdom. BHI was founded in 1858 by a small group of watchmakers. Their main idea was connecting of all British watch-producers and foreign importers. The institute achieved a real success, during the first it got own museum and library, so in evening time they have some classes where horology was taught. Since September 1858 BHI started to issue Horology Journal. Nowadays BHI is located in Upton Hall, Nottinghamshire, England. The work of BHI is based on horology teaching and providing all necessary exams for passing to those who would like to become a professional. The Institute is also conducts the list of members who is quite qualified in the area of watch-repairing and who sticks to the old school of horology.

Bush - a central part of some object of a cylindrical or conic size.


C

Collet is a small cylinder attached to the support of a balance.

Chronometer is a watch which differs by the accuracy of speed. The state of a chronometer a watch adopts after passing some tests and certification. In mechanic chronometers aberration of a day run must be no more than 5 seconds, so well quartz movement can have an inaccuracy only of one second.

Cannon-Pinion pinion is a tool which makes the movement work.

Cylinder-cover is a copper disk which is placed into a swaging of a cylinder.

Coaxal elements position is a meaning which denotes details which coincide with swinging axises. Such position can be observed looking after a minute or hour hands.

Carillon is a kind of a music watch. Multiple-ringer tones is achieved by setting three or more bronze gongs which response for a definite tone. Carillon watch as opposed to repeaters or striking watch can produce not only one voice or two voice sounds but accords or some melodies as well.

Carat is gold standard which denotes the quantity of gold in 24s parts of alloy. Alloy of 12carat contains 12/24 of gold, 18carat alloy contains 18/24. Pure gold is 24carat.

Cylindrical-Arbor is an axis which fixes the cylinder and its spring. It consists of cylindrical part which is called a center and a hook to which an inside end of a main spring is connected. The up pin of an axis is cut of a squared shape supplied for a ratchet wheel. Pins of a cylinder are inserted into the holes at the bottom part of a cylinder.

Cabochon is one of the ways of gems processing. After cutting their shape becomes spherical. In general cabochons are used for crown (in the place of strap fixing)and bracelet decoration.

Caliber (gauge) is a term which is used for watch movement marking. Very often it corresponds to biggest overall dimension of a movement. Sometimes the term can be associated with something else, for example the year of a movement creation or specification.

Claw is a protrudent part of a wheel, lever or something else. It is usually used for grabbing and passing of a transmission movement and etc.

Crown , , , , . , , , .

Chronograph is a watch supplied with two or more independent measuring systems. Using such watch it is possible to measure short periods of time not shifting the pass of the main hands. In some chronographs it is possible to stop and to make work the main second hand and some models are supplied with extra dials, second and minute hands and indications. Electronic chronometers afford to measure the periods of time up to the split seconds.

Crutch movement (crutch) -is a part of a watch movement which consists of crutch wheel, a gad and a balance which transforms the energy of a winding spring into some impulses passing on to a balance for swinging frequency rate keeping which is need for a gradual turning of gear wheel.


D

Dial is a panel of watch which has figures, marks and other symbols, which denote hours and minutes. Dials are very different by their shape, design, materials and so on. Jumping dials, for example, are supplied with apertures where hour, minute and second marks appear.

Digital Dial is a numeral indicator of time.

Data-disc is an indication of a date in a shape of a moving disk, the indications of which are observed in a special hole (aperture). Disks of days, months and Luna phases are also exist.

Dynamograph - an index of a power producing by a barrel spring.

Disc Plate is a thin, flat round plate.

Diamond is a crystallized carbon the most hard and solid substance in the world. After being cut in a special way it acquires a unique shine and becomes called like a brilliant. It is also used for watch decoration.


E

Electric-luminous lightning is a panel which provides enlightening of a dial and which helps to distinguish the time in a dark time of a day. Thanks to function of a delay switching off, a dial is enlightened for some seconds.

Equation of time is a complex watch movement which allows to show the difference between the real time detecting by the Sun and World time which is shown by an ordinary watch.


F

Flyback is a function of a moment return of a second hand of a chronograph to a zero position by a pressing of one button. A repeat pressing the button starts a new countdown.

Flying tourbillion is a kind of a tourbillion which movable carriage is fixed only at one side in order to avoid bar using which hides the view of such a complex mechanism. Flying tourbillion are considered more complex and more fragile.


G

Gem is a watch detail which is made of natural or synthetic gem (garnet, sapphire or ruby) which is used for reducing frictions between the details of a movement.

Graining is a way of polishing watch surface by a piece of a wood coal.

Gadrooning is a process of a case or dial processing by wave-lines engraving. It is handmade and usually done by experienced and skilful watchmakers. Watches with a gadrooning decoration are valued higher than others.


H

Horology Journal is also published in BHI it is the oldest edition which deals with technology which is published in the UK. It contains a detailed information about everything which is somehow connecter with watch. At the moment BHI offers different ways of membership: ordinary membership (when a member can become any volunteer), absolute membership (it is available only for skillful, experienced and well-educated BHI graduates - Masters of BHI). Foe becoming a member of BHI a person should make a contribution into the area of horology, which an be considered as an exclusive value.

Helium Valve is a device created especially for diver watch, who work at a no-bottom using helium and oxygen mixture for breathing. Helium molecules are lighter than oxygen molecules which can cause helium penetration into watch case and break down the crystal as a result of decompression. Helium decompression valve lets the helium out at a critical pressure at a watch preventing water penetration.


J

Jaquemarts a kind of watch decoration which usually looks like silhouettes of living creatures who move around a dial and imitate measuring time.


K

Kevlar is a superstrong material (polyparafenilen-tereftalamid ) it is three times firmer than steel, it is used for making watch cases in combinations with other materials.


L

Ligne (france) is a traditional unit of watch-movement size measure. It is equal 2.255mm.


M

Maltese cross is a part of a watch movement which limits the strength of spring tension. The element with opening beams looks like a Maltese cross so here comer the name.

Moon (lunar) phase indicator) is a supplementary dial or aperture which shows 29,5 days and Moon (Lunar) phases as images, which helps to distinguish the current phase.


O

Oyster is one of the most famous models of Rolex watch. Its double sealed hermetically movement protects watch from outward influence.


P

Plata is a hugest part of a watch movement to which all the parts are attached and fixed. Bars and pier of wheels are attached to a plata.

Palladium is white metal which is originally is in platinum group of metals. Pure palladium and its alloys are used for watch cases making.

Patina natural or artificial effect of copper, bronze, brass and their alloys aging. It is usually used for watch case decoration.

Plique-a-jour is a complex technology which is applied for handmade elite watch producing. The process consists in making deep holes in a dial where wire is placed later. The space between the portions of wire are covered with a thing layer of a powder, which becomes a form enamel after burning and which is polished afterwards.

Pinon is a leading gear at a watch movement for winding spring energy passing.

Pinon is a leading gear at a watch movement for winding spring energy passing.

Power reserve indicator is a supplementary dial which shows the extent of a spring rewind in a mechanic watch. Power reserve indicator shows the information in days, hours, split seconds or percents till the complete stop.

Power reserve is a period of time when watch work well without any rewinding.

Pumping out is an exact tuning of balance state at a watch movement.


Q

Quartz watch is a movement supplied with a quartz resonator which is a time-slowing-down element. It is a specially processed dial made of quartz crystals.


R

Roll-polishing is a process of a surface, axes, gears and holes processing by a rolling disk made of heavy metal.

Rotor(sector) is a device of an automatic movement which looks like a half of a disk made of heavy metal, turning around it transforms the energy which is need for winding the spring with the help of reverse tool.

Reactionary hand is a hand which moves arcwise, reaching the end of a scale shifts to a zero mark.

Repassage (fr.) is a complete repair of the whole movement.

Regulator is a dial which second and minute hands are placed separately.

Resonance chronometer is a complex watch movement which consists of two pendulums which resound each other imparting. Resonance watch are the most exact, their work error can be less than a second per six weeks.

Remontoir (fr.) is a device in a watch movement which is made for hands setting and for winding spring. It consists of winding axis with a crown, wheels, leverages and other details (depending on the movement construction).

Reference is an individual number of a watch according to the catalog of a producer.

Repeater is a complex movement which is mostly used in watches of Grande Complication category which purpose is to indicate the time by different sounds. The movement starts to work by pressing some special button. There are some modifications of such watch which count and announce the time automatically and do not need special pressing of a button.


S

Staple is a part of a case to which a strap or a metal bracelet is fixed.

Split-chronograph is a complex watch supplied with two second hands, which starts to work and stop independently. Such movements afford to stop and to start work of hand without zeroing.

Scroll is a thin volute spring, fixed by an inside end at the balance and the outside end is fixed at a block. The number of turn of a balance spring is nearly 11 or 12 times.

Sea chronometer is the most accurate model of a mechanic watch which placed into a metal case which constantly keeps the movement at a horizontal position. It is used for longitude and latitude of a ship in the ocean identification. A special case reduces the influence of a temperature and gravitation.

Slide valve a device which an be used outside the case for movement rewind.

Strap bar is a thin metal bar with a hidden spring inside which is used for fixing strap between the nubs.

Second is the main unit of time which makes 1/86000 part of a Solar day which means the time of a full turn of the Earth around once axis. When atomic watch was invented (after the II World War) it was discovered that the Earth moves occasionally. That is why it was determined to set a time measuring standard in seconds. It was made at a 13th General Conference of Measures and Systems of Weights in 1967. iIt was determined that a second is a period of time which is equal to 9.192.631.770 periods of Caesium-133 atom in the case of shifting from one to another neighbor steady levels.

Skeleton is a watch which has skeletonized dial which covers the movement partially. Sometimes skeleton may not have a panel supplied with indication and figures can be placed on the parts of a movement which is usually decorated with engraving or gems. It is common foe skeletons to have transparent back lid as well.

Shock absorber is a a movements shock resistant detail which is need for axes protection from breaking out and impulse loading.


T

Telemetric scale is a supplementary indication scale which affords to detect the distance between the watcher and the source of a sound. Usually it is placed at a brink of a dial next to the scale of a second collector. For example, in order to measure the distance to a thunderhead it is enough to measure the time between lightning flash and moment of a thunderclap at a place of watching by a chronograph. At the same time a hand of a second collector will point the time between the thunderheads at a scale of seconds and the distance will be shown at a telemetric scale. The calculation of a telemetric scale is made by using of sound velocity (330mpc) which means that a maximum distance which can be measured by a telemetric scale is nearly 20 000meters, which refers to a time delay between a flash and a sound (60 seconds).

Tachymeter is a scale for speed detecting.

Twincept is an effect of floating figures at an analog dial.

Tantalus is a metal of a silver color with a slight lead like shade. It is usually used for watch cases making. It is very like nickel or chrome coating. Tantalus is very strong and it resists all the outward aggressive influence. It is used as an alternative to platinum.

Tourbillion is a device created by Swiss watchmaker Abraham Louis Brege, which lets to compensate the influence of the Earth gravity to a watch movement. Balance axis turns around periodically thanks to which the forces having an effect upon a movement are self-compensated. Tourbillion was firstly made for a pocket watch. Such device is a piece of engineering and horology art. It is considered as a refined detail which gives to a watch superior status. Tourbillion is very difficult to make, that is why a watch supplied with it is more expensive than ordinary watch of analogue brand without it.

Tonneau-shaped watch a watch which case is a tonneau like.


U

Ultra thin watch is a watch which movement is no mote than 3.0 mm thick, which lets to reduce thickness of watch itself.


W

Winder - a special case for watch supplied with automatic winding up. It is looked like a casket for watch keeping.


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